## Introduction

In Linear Regression using TensorFlow post, we described how to predict continuous-valued parameters by linearly modeling the system. What if the objective is to decide between two choices? The answer is simple: we are dealing with a classification problem. In this tutorial, the objective to decide whether the input image is digit “0” or digit “1” using Logistic Regression. In other

## Dataset

The dataset that we work on that in this tutorial is the MNIST dataset. The main dataset

## Logistic Regression

In linear regression, the effort is to predict the outcome continuous value using the linear function of \(y=W^{T}x\). On the other hand, in logistic regression, we are determined to predict a binary label as \(y\in{0,1}\) in which we use a different prediction process as opposed to linear regression. In logistic regression, the predicted output is the probability that the input sample belongs to a targeted class which is digit “1” in our case. In a binary-classification problem, obviously if the \(P(x\in{target\_class}) = M \), then \(P(x\in{non\_target\_class}) = 1 – M\). So the hypothesis can be created as follows:

$$P(y=1|x)=h_{W}(x)={{1}\over{1+exp(-W^{T}x)}}=Sigmoid(W^{T}x) \ \ \ (1)$$

$$P(y=0|x)=1 – P(y=1|x) = 1 – h_{W}(x) \ \ \ (2)$$

In the above equations, Sigmoid function maps the predicted output into probability space in which the values are in the range \([0,1]\). The main objective is to find the model using which when the input sample is “1” the output become a high probability and become small otherwise. The important objective is to design the appropriate cost function to minimize the loss when the output is desired and vice versa. The cost function for a set of data such as \((x^{i},y^{i})\) be defined as below:

$$Loss(W) = \sum_{i}{y^{(i)}log{1\over{h_{W}(x^{i})}}+(1-y^{(i)})log{1\over{1-h_{W}(x^{i})}}}$$

As it can be seen from the above equation, the loss function consists of two terms and in each sample, only one of them is non-zero considering the binary labels. Up to now, we defined the formulation and optimization function of the logistic regression. In the next part, we show how to do it in code using mini-batch optimization

## How to Do It in Code?

In this part, we explain how to extract desired samples from the

### Process Dataset

At first, we need to extract “0” and “1” digits from MNIST dataset:

from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import inpuat_data mnist = input_data.read_data_sets("MNIST_data/", reshape=True, one_hot=False) ######################## ### Data Processing #### ######################## # Organize the data and feed it to associated dictionaries. data={} data['train/image'] = mnist.train.images data['train/label'] = mnist.train.labels data['test/image'] = mnist.test.images data['test/label'] = mnist.test.labels # Get only the samples with zero and one label for training. index_list_train = [] for sample_index in range(data['train/label'].shape[0]): label = data['train/label'][sample_index] if label == 1 or label == 0: index_list_train.append(sample_index) # Reform the train data structure. data['train/image'] = mnist.train.images[index_list_train] data['train/label'] = mnist.train.labels[index_list_train] # Get only the samples with zero and one label for test set. index_list_test = [] for sample_index in range(data['test/label'].shape[0]): label = data['test/label'][sample_index] if label == 1 or label == 0: index_list_test.append(sample_index) # Reform the test data structure. data['test/image'] = mnist.test.images[index_list_test] data['test/label'] = mnist.test.labels[index_list_test]

The code looks to be verbose but it’s very simple actually. All we want is implemented in lines 28-32 in which the desired data samples are extracted. Next, we have to dig into logistic regression architecture.

### Logistic Regression Implementation

The logistic regression structure is simply feeding-forwarding the input features through a fully-connected layer in which the last layer only has two classes. The fully-connected architecture can be defined as below:

############################################### ########### Defining place holders ############ ############################################### image_place = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=([None, num_features]), name='image') label_place = tf.placeholder(tf.int32, shape=([None,]), name='gt') label_one_hot = tf.one_hot(label_place, depth=FLAGS.num_classes, axis=-1) dropout_param = tf.placeholder(tf.float32) ################################################## ########### Model + Loss + Accuracy ############## ################################################## # A simple fully connected with two class and a softmax is equivalent to Logistic Regression. logits = tf.contrib.layers.fully_connected(inputs=image_place, num_outputs = FLAGS.num_classes, scope='fc')

The first few lines are defining place holders in order to put the desired values on the graph. Please refer to this post for further details. The desired loss function can easily be implemented using TensorFlow using the following script:

# Define loss with tf.name_scope('loss'): loss = tf.reduce_mean(tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(logits=logits, labels=label_one_hot)) # Accuracy with tf.name_scope('accuracy'): # Evaluate the model correct_pred = tf.equal(tf.argmax(logits, 1), tf.argmax(label_one_hot, 1)) # Accuracy calculation accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_pred, tf.float32))

The **tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits** function does the work. It optimizes the previously defined cost function with a subtle difference. It generates two inputs in which even if the sample is digit “0”, the correspondent probability will be high. So **tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits**function, for each class predict a probability and inherently by its own, makes the decision.

## Summary

In this tutorial, we described logistic regression and represented how to implement it in code. Instead of making a decision based on the output probability based on a targeted class, we extended the problem two a two-class problem in which for each class we predict the probability. In future posts, we will extend this problem to multi-class problem and we show it can be done with a similar approach.

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